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ІНСТИТУТ ЕКОНОМІКО-СОЦІОКУЛЬТУРНИХ ДОСЛІДЖЕНЬ
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Головна » Статті » Dissertations / Дисертації-доповіді

Oksana Yanoshac-Pshibila - to Dissertation Art "Heritage of European Nation-Ukrainian"/"Спадщина Європейського Народу"-3

Oksana Yaroslavina Yanoshac-Pshibila

 

Folk architecture of Pricarpattya

second half HIH – beginning of the HH item

 

Habitation — one of the most meaningful components of traditional-domestic culture of any people. It is certain microcosmos, in the reserved space which is passed by the family life: here since time immemorial there are various processes, it was cooked, rested, celebrated domestic events and sent ceremonies. In building all numerous copulas and mutual relations between family members are concentrated.

The outstanding influencing corrects a natural environment. It dictates, what build materials to apply, and it, in the turn, is reflected on constructions of building, architectural-plastic decisions: what height a roof is to be, what sizes of opening of windows and doors, thickness of walls.

On the features of complex of folk habitation mediated are reflected character  of economic activity,  level of social-economic development. The given factors were instrumental in the origin in habitation of different people of general lines, their combination with local history tradition, and also vzaemovplivami and by borrowing at neighbouring people order to appearance of ethnic specific, that is such lines which select habitation of one people among other. Specific lines proof are saved, nezvagayochi even on the changes of these external factors. General lines of complex of Ukrainian traditional habitation, which select him on a shidnoslov'yanscomou background.

By the basic type of peasant farmstead, which was characteristic almost for all Ukraine, in the second half XIX — on poch. XX item, except for its north and western districts, there was a farmstead with the unreserved, opened court, on which economic building took place freely, without the set procedure and also reserved – for example: goutsoulsci gragdi. Next to such chart the local variants of odnoryadnoi and dvoryadnoi poboutouvali in separate districts, G-podibnoi, and also the reserved building of the opened court. So, at the end of XIX — at the beginning of the XX item odnoryadna building, or, as derivative from her, — dvoryadna tested considerable distribution on Polissi («linear type»), Souths and in Carpathians («large house», «long log cabin»), on Podilli. At such chart the housing and economic apartments were blocked in one or two parallel rows, each of which united by the protection, cover or roof which could be general and block all building at one level or fall by ledges above each of them.

Environmental conditions induced the habitants of steppe districts to save a build tree for ceiling, and in north and mountain localities, where the more of precipitations and more than strict the winters are, — to search defence from the inclement weather. Are covered by a general roof and the connected by transitions apartments considerably facilitated maintenance of cattle and implementation of home-works in a winter period. Except for that, such planning of farmstead saved the area of earth under a court. It was also related to the character of economic activity and prevailed wherein the population has engaged in the cattle breeding.

It is needed to reminisce history corinnya of this tradition which is traced in architecture of Kiev Russia. From old slavs she passed to folk building not only Ukrainians but also Russians, Byelorussians and others like that. Combination of building under one roof was known to many people of Western Europe. And today yet we meet such building in the adopted higher districts of Ukraine. Besides this not only old farmsteads of end XIX — beginning of the XX item, but also are built in 50—60th years. Odnoryadnist is traced in planning of modern courts, though and the amount of economic apartments diminished and their setting changed.

The perimeter planning of court differed from odno-, dvoryadnoi building by the presence of building which adjoined to the basic group athwart, thus at the greater amount of economic apartments a court had the form of letter «P» (at well-to-do peasants), and at less — letters «G». In Carpathians — it is a goutsoulsci gragdi log «cabin with the covered transition», a secret is «broken court», a secret is «broken   gragda»;   on   Polissi — «court   with     pidvarcom».

Local originality of farmsteads in different istorico-эtnografichescih districts of Ukraine arose up thanks to different combinations of economic building, to their architectural-structural features, that relied on the presence of build materials, local build traditions. In addition, environmental conditions, and also mutual relations, with other people were led to appearance of original building which had local distribution. Among them — «cabitsya», built out of walls of log cabin stove, on the basis of which later the separate type of habitation developed — kitchen complex, so called summer kitchen. She poboutouvala on Podilli and South, and in our time is widespread almost in all districts. A summer kitchen, supposed, was adopted by Ukrainians at other people, possibly, at the Bulgarian migrants, at which a housing complex consisted of «large house» — parade building and «kitchen» — basic housing apartment. On the courts of highlanders of Carpathians, and also on Polissi necessarily were oborogi (covers) for saving of hay and straw; in steppe districts in place of well built a pool — reservoir for collection   of rain-water;   on Polissi   vegetables   were held   not only in   cellars,   but also   in the special building   of «istepcah», which were heated in nipping frosts, and etc

Local originality of economic building was represented in local terms. For example, a barn was named in Carpathians the «cage», on Polissi — «barn»,   «oviran»,   on   Podilli — «shpihlir» and others like that.

In the well-to-do economies the list of economic building was full and included all complex: povitci, stables, barns, clouni, pogrib, well and etc At poor men one or a few economic building executed all functions: in them and held a cattle, and saved a corn and every bread. On the testimonies of researchers: M.V.Bitova, Yo.G.Goshco, N.N Gratsianscoi, T.V.Cosmita, M.Ya.Salmanovicha, A.T.Smilenca, I.Ya.Franca, V.Shouhevicha and much insh., in the poor man economies all complex consisted of log cabin, stable or povitci for a horse and heifer and protection. A separate barn was had by one of ten owners.

For years soviet power the considerable changes happened in building of peasant farmstead; basic production processes as a result of collectivization and socialization of tools relocated from a peasant court on of a collective farm, state farm farmsteads, therefore a necessity in the row of traditional economic building fell off. In building which developed actively, beginning from 60th years, developed by architects normative principles of planning of farmstead are used, that results in certain standardization, elimination of local features. So, considerable distribution was lately got by the planned chart, after which all economic building are united in two blocks: apartment for maintenance of cattle, birds, inventory and domestic (a summer kitchen, pogrib, treasure, garage), but in their placing on a farmstead, in the chart of communication with a dwelling-house it is possible to trace local traditions.

At the end of XIX — at the beginning of the XX item a brick and other factory material appear in rural building. The well-to-do peasants of wall of the log cabins assessed («lichcouvali»), and also fully erected from a brick. Its use was an original social character, as well as frame log cabins in forest-steppe, steppe districts.

Local originality of habitation turned out in constructions, form, proportions of roof, materials and features of his coverage. Construction of roof on crocvah which cut in in the overhead stone of wall prevailed in traditional habitation, or in the issues of beams of ceiling. There were arhaichnishi methods — hip ceiling, roof of nacotom (the crowns of walls and frontons gradually narrowed and were taken on no), on wooden ploughs and pivsoshcah, on which a central beam consisted — svoloc, to which, in same queue, crocvi were fastened.

In forest districts for roofing material governed tree — shalivca, dranca, –ont, colota board (Polissya, Carpathians), straw, reed. For example, in boycivscomou and lemcivscomou habitations both a tree and straw were used. Rozstelyali a straw or concluded by sheaves in number of different ways: by ledges (by «notches», by «cichcami», «strihachami») on Podilli and in Carpathians; vnatrouscou, «smoothly and brilliant, under a board» in other districts. Relief the horns and comb of roof poshivalisya by brushes. Comb of wooden, straw and made of cane roof yet and pinned by poparnimi rogachami. After a form a roof chotirishiliy and with two sloping surfaces. The last more frequent was observed on Polissi and South. The roofs of goutsoulscogo habitation were especially swift. In opened up to all winds steppe districts a roof was low, rounding forms, plescatiy.

High trade of folk skilled craftsmen was realized in artistic treatment of tree. In frame building to her most structural features were subject, especially those which struck the eyes or executed some special role in by-spatial composition. Issues of crocv, svolociv, crowns, and also completion of wind boards, cizliciv and others like that added to sculptural treatment. Door-posts, viconnitsi, pidstrishini adorned oneself by a screw-thread. Geometrical, rarer vegetable decorative patterns were executed by the traditional techniques of screw-thread: deaf, contour, flat and others like that. By riches of the fretted dress habitation of the Ukrainian highlanders was reputed. The opened (are not coated) wooden elements were artistically processed and in framework habitation. Even in steppe districts that minimoum trees, that was in constructions, with love decorated by a screw-thread (nagal in today's life of highlanders of farmstead lose given authentic).

In stone building of screw-thread and sculptural treatment passed in the plastic of clay, natural to the stone, gypsum. The bulges which were done on the corners of housing building (wall piers) imitated the copula of crowns of frame, and those, that opening of windows was engulfed, doors, — viconnitsi   and door-posts. On   them and   on   frontons   the fretted or outpoured from a gypsum geometrical and vegetable reasons took place. With appearance of factory dyes (end of the XIX item) relief decorations began to dye (by a stain and different enamels). Attraction to coloristici, polihromii incident to the Ukrainian folk culture. Even the facades of frame log cabins tried to adorn by a color or pofarbouvannyam joints of crowns (Carpathians), pidvodcoyo of viconnits (Polissya) or by causing of pictures on the issues of crowns. Especially a lot of color were used in registration of framework and monolithic constructions, at which the bleached surface of walls smooth and shiny was a wonderful background for pidvodoc of prizbi, viconnits, and also wall painting. Decorative patterns are drawn, as well as fretted in frame habitations, opening of windows and doors was engulfed, took place between them. By red, yellow clays the back walls of log cabins and wall of economic building were often dyed. On Podilli, Souths for registration of facades widely used sincou. At first reliefs pidsinyovali only, and at the end of XIX — at the beginning of the XX item vice versa — abandoned white reliefs and dyed all plane of walls in different tints of dark blue.

All these facilities of artistic registration of exterior have the continuation and today. Among them as a leading reason it is possible to select architectural the plastic arts. All surface of walls is subject to plastic treatment: an artificial invoice is created by punching, nabrizcouvannyam lime solution with sand, use of ceramic tile and others like that. For the sake of greater expressiveness of plastic decorou his painting is widely practiced. Other methods develop. For example, contour porizca, traditionally common in registration of completions of windows, frontons and other wooden details, passed to the blyashani roofs, water-shoots, completions of dimariv and others like that. Polihromiya and painting, screw-thread and sculptural the plastic arts decorated traditional habitation not only outwardly, but also from within. By them the structural value of elements (svoloca, windows, doors) and functional division of habitation were also underlined.

For   traditional   Ukrainian   habitation       in     different istorico-эtnografichescih districts characteristic identical of his planning: at the entrance — stove; on the contrary stoves bias — pocout (red corner), where table or scrinya stood, lavas, the icons decorated by towels hung; after a stove — wooden flooring for asleep (pil), which a bookcase for clothes settled down above; along walls (main and prichilcovoi) — lavas; at doors and above doors — misnic, shelves for a crockery and different bread. According to the equipment each of corners had the functional setting: on pocouti dear guests were seated, and during a wedding ceremony — youths; pil and lavas served as a resting-place, a hostess slated near a stove, and under a window an owner made on a bench-horse. Such organization of housing space provided the most rational his use and answered the functional necessities of family.

But even within bounds of ethnic territory of Ukrainians the interior of folk habitation differed stoves thanks to construction, oumeblyovannyo and the decorative dress. Stoves which developed from the simplest in davnoslov'yanscomou habitation to the spirit stove with a pipe in every district of Ukraine had the local features: their sizes were multiplied in northlands (on the average a stove occupied 1/7 areas of room); they had different devices (stove-benchs, pripichci, zapichci), mirrors and others like that. After constructions they can be divided into such basic groups: courna stove without a pipe (happened on Polissi, in Carpathians, in poor man habitation of other districts), «varista stove» with a flue (it is most widespread), stove with a pipe straight and grouboyo look like on the Dutch stove     (poboutouvala on South).

In frame habitations the furnitures were structurally related to the walls (ridges, benchs and others like that), and movable furnitures prevailed in frameworks and monolithic. And a city fashion did not go round the economic developed districts — here at the end of XIX — at the beginning of the XX item handicraft lavas appeared with the backs and pidlicotnicami, wooden beds, chairs, scrini and others like that.

An interior was revived, made happy by the paints and wonderful decorative patterns the woven and embroidered to the stake towels spread on the walls of log cabin, checked and striped nalavnici, carpets, scaterci and other decorative fabrics. Of every district or even mud flow there were the traditions of weaving and embroidery.

In our time the interior of rural habitation similarly in a root changed, as well as his architecture. A modern dwelling-house is fully urbanized: with the steam heating, high and light windows. His area was multiplied, and on the basis of traditional functional division on corners the apartments of a different setting were selected (kitchen, living room, bedrooms). But is even equipped by modern furnitures, we are made happy by a log cabin, which meets the guests by either the embroidered towel, by a serviette, scatercoyo, or homespun path, carpet. Exactly in the methods of their use and decorative patterns which today have the decorative value especially, ethnic traditions are saved.
 

 

Colomiysciy museum of folk art of Goutsoulshini and Pocouttya im.Y.Cobrinscogo

 Interior of goutsoulscoi log cabin
 

Colomiysciy museum of folk art of Goutsoulshini and Pocouttya im.Y.Cobrinscogo

 Interior of goutsoulscoi log cabin

Colomiysciy museum of folk art of Goutsoulshini and Pocouttya im.Y.Cobrinscogo

 Interior of goutsoulscoi log cabin – Icons on glass
 

Used literature

 

1.      Vitov M.V. Voprosы эtnografichescoy systematizations of vostochnoslavyanscogo folk gilisha (Classificatsiya tipov zastroyci ousadbы) // Vesnic Moscovscogo ouniversiteta. Istorico-filosovscaya sectsiya. –, 1958. - № 4.;

2.       Wolf H. Etnografichni of feature of the Ukrainian people // Wolf Hv. Studio from Ukrainian ethnography and anthropology. – C., 1995.;

3.      Goshco Yo.G. Population of Ukrainian Carpathians of HV-XVIII st.: Settling. Migrations. Way of life. – C., 1976.;

4.      Cosmata T.V. Rural habitation of Podillya. End of HIH-HH st.: istorico-эtnografichescie researches. – C., 1980.;

5.      Mandiboura M.D., Tivodar M.P. Stock-raising // Goutsoulshina: istorico-эtnografichescoe research. – C., 1987.;

6.      Pavlyoc S.P. Folk agrotechnics of Ukrainians of Carpathians the second half HIH – beginning HH st.: istorico-эtnografichescie researches. – C., 1986.;

7.      Franco I.Ya. Ethnographic expedition on Boycivshinou // Franco I.Ya. collected Works. In 50-ti t. – C., 1982 – T. 36.;

8.      Shouhevich In. Goutsoulshina. Ch. 1 // Materials to oucrainsco-rouscoietnologii. – Lvov, 1899. – T. 2.



Джерело: http://perso.orange.es/elg79/safari%20stanislaw.htm
Категорія: Dissertations / Дисертації-доповіді | Додав: Vasiljev (03.08.2009) | Автор: Oksana Yanoshac-Pshibila
Переглядів: 1078 | Коментарі: 2 | Теги: architecture of Pricarpattya, Dissertation Art, Oksana Yanoshac-Pshibila, ukraine | Рейтинг: 5.0/1 |
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